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Derek Bailey's Improvisation, originally published in 1980, and here updated and extended with new interviews and photographs, is the first book to deal with the nature of improvisation in all its forms--Indian music, flamenco, baroque, organ music, rock, jazz, contemporary, and "free" music. By drawing on conversations with some of today's seminal improvisers--including J Derek Bailey's Improvisation, originally published in 1980, and here updated and extended with new interviews and photographs, is the first book to deal with the nature of improvisation in all its forms--Indian music, flamenco, baroque, organ music, rock, jazz, contemporary, and "free" music. By drawing on conversations with some of today's seminal improvisers--including John Zorn, Jerry Garcia, Steve Howe, Steve Lacy, Lionel Salter, Earle Brown, Paco Peña, Max Roach, Evan Parker, and Ronnie Scott--Bailey offers a clear-eyed view of the breathtaking spectrum of possibilities inherent in improvisational practice, while underpinning its importance as the basis for all music-making.


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Derek Bailey's Improvisation, originally published in 1980, and here updated and extended with new interviews and photographs, is the first book to deal with the nature of improvisation in all its forms--Indian music, flamenco, baroque, organ music, rock, jazz, contemporary, and "free" music. By drawing on conversations with some of today's seminal improvisers--including J Derek Bailey's Improvisation, originally published in 1980, and here updated and extended with new interviews and photographs, is the first book to deal with the nature of improvisation in all its forms--Indian music, flamenco, baroque, organ music, rock, jazz, contemporary, and "free" music. By drawing on conversations with some of today's seminal improvisers--including John Zorn, Jerry Garcia, Steve Howe, Steve Lacy, Lionel Salter, Earle Brown, Paco Peña, Max Roach, Evan Parker, and Ronnie Scott--Bailey offers a clear-eyed view of the breathtaking spectrum of possibilities inherent in improvisational practice, while underpinning its importance as the basis for all music-making.

30 review for Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music

  1. 4 out of 5

    Todd Jenkins

    The essential text on improvisation in music, the late Derek Bailey's book takes a truly global look at the role of improvisation in different cultures and situations. From the complexities of Indian music to the British free-improv machine of which he was a vital cog, Bailey covers a wide range of concepts and shows how very different forms of music can be interrelated through spontaneous creation. As a guitarist Bailey developed his own ideas of "non-idiomatic improvisation", in which he consc The essential text on improvisation in music, the late Derek Bailey's book takes a truly global look at the role of improvisation in different cultures and situations. From the complexities of Indian music to the British free-improv machine of which he was a vital cog, Bailey covers a wide range of concepts and shows how very different forms of music can be interrelated through spontaneous creation. As a guitarist Bailey developed his own ideas of "non-idiomatic improvisation", in which he consciously tried not to emulate anything that could be taken as jazz, blues, rock or other pigeon-hole styles. This book helps to illustrate just how formidable a task that was, given the importance of improvisation in so many musical traditions. Absolutely vital.

  2. 4 out of 5

    Caroline

    this book by derek bailey has been on my shelf for quite some time, but i finally got around to reading it. it's a wonderful book for people who want to expand their knowledge of musicians' (and his) views on improvisation in *many* genres. thus, much of the book is a set of questions and interviews posed by bailey to a group of improvisers, composers, and non-improvisers. he covers the guru model of improvisation in indian music, the authenticity of improvisation in flamenco, patterned practice this book by derek bailey has been on my shelf for quite some time, but i finally got around to reading it. it's a wonderful book for people who want to expand their knowledge of musicians' (and his) views on improvisation in *many* genres. thus, much of the book is a set of questions and interviews posed by bailey to a group of improvisers, composers, and non-improvisers. he covers the guru model of improvisation in indian music, the authenticity of improvisation in flamenco, patterned practice in baroque improvisation, stretching of structure and form in organ improvisation, the complications of playing the same solos in rock "improvisation," and finally the influence and (arguable) demise of jazz improvisation. the second half of the book includes a wonderful section on composition and the ways in which composers deal with control in their writing. the most informed parts of the text for me are the last three, which dive into the realm of free improvisation and ways to structure music and group collaboration (the world of musicians with whom derek bailey is himself involved). i'm so glad i read this book, because a lot of it will be useful for background material in my dissertation. notable excerpts for me: t. carl whitmer's thoughts on improvisation (p. 33): 'don't look forward to a finished and complete entity. the idea must always be kept in a state of flux.' 'an error may be only an unintentional rightness.' 'do not get too fussy about how every part of the thing sounds. go ahead. all processes are at first awkward and clumsy and "funny".' 'polishing is not at all the important thing; instead strive for a rough goahead energy.' 'do not be afraid of being wrong; just be afraid of being uninteresting.' question posed by anthony pay(p.72): 'i mean how much are you entitled to be free with music?' thoughts by anthony pay (p.74): 'what reason has one for existing other than to be involved with what is actually being created in your particular time?' and finally 'if you can understand what it means to be disciplined and to be accurate, committed and involved with something which is purely notated, and also be capable of being free, of being able to step outside the inhibition that notation produces, and do something which is your own and relevant, then i still think that combination is probably the highest form of instrumental talent that there is. and it is only the really great instrumentalists who can do that, who are free of their instrument to that extent.' thought of john stevens, drummer and former member of spontaneous music ensemble (p. 99): 'application is even more important than technical facility, because application is the key to taking part, to being involved.' 'but ultimately the greatest rewards in free improvisation are to be gained in playing with other people.' derek bailey (p.113) i highly recommend this book for bailey's insight, candor, and honesty. the only critiques i have are 1.that it's kinda disorganized (only in some parts) and 2. that it's not longer :) <3

  3. 4 out of 5

    kaelan

    Although he started out as a jazz-based guitarist, Derek Bailey is best known as one of the major progenitors of "non-idiomatic improvisation" (otherwise known as "free improvisation" or simply "free improv"); and in Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music, he employs a variety of artist interviews and passionate diatribes to describe this most ancient of human musical arts. The result is a groundbreaking account of improvisation through its various guises, from Hindustani classical musi Although he started out as a jazz-based guitarist, Derek Bailey is best known as one of the major progenitors of "non-idiomatic improvisation" (otherwise known as "free improvisation" or simply "free improv"); and in Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music, he employs a variety of artist interviews and passionate diatribes to describe this most ancient of human musical arts. The result is a groundbreaking account of improvisation through its various guises, from Hindustani classical music to baroque organ improvisation to modern jazz and beyond. Throughout this short(ish) book, Bailey proves himself a highly opinionated and rather cantankerous fellow, which means that he doesn't strive for any sense of journalistic neutrality. Rather, these interviews—featuring such notable figures as John Zorn, Steve Lacy and Jerry Garcia (there is a disturbing lack of female musicians here)—function as a dialectical exchange of conflicting ideas, beliefs and views. Of particular interest is the "Objections" section, in which improviser-turned-composer (as well as former Bailey-collaborator) Gavin Bryars defends the preeminence of composition over improvisation. (Bailey, of course, argues for the opposite.) Besides the interviews and polemics, I also greatly enjoyed Bailey's recollections of the early free improv scene, including his experiences playing in the Joseph Holbrooke trio and the Music Improvisation Company. The transition from jazz into free improv was by no means an easy one, and these sections provide a fascinating eye-witness account of one of the most important developments in modern music. Yet despite the book's historical and cultural importance, it suffers from several drawbacks, most of which are stylistic in nature. Bailey's guitar chops are exceptional; his writerly acumen, less so. Without going into his (admittedly) haphazard research habits, the guitarist's prose tends towards the awkward and syntactically torturous, and he has an irritating habit of cut-and-pasting huge swaths of quoted text with little thought to flow or integration. Still, Improvisation remains an essential text for anyone interested in free jazz, free improv and/or the 20th century avant-garde. Bailey's description of solo improvisation alone makes it a worthwhile read; the same goes for the edifying conversation with Bryars. If only Bailey was a more accomplished writer, or at least had a more judicious editor.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Phillip

    this book is totally indispensable for anyone interested in improvisation. i often copy sections and use it as required reading for my free improvisation classes. basically, what derek does is look back over the past 300 years of musical activity, and discusses how improvisation was a part of the activity - from (church) organ music to flamenco to jazz to non-idiomatic free improvisation and so much more. his prose is clear, erudite and simply put - not surprisingly if you think of his playing. h this book is totally indispensable for anyone interested in improvisation. i often copy sections and use it as required reading for my free improvisation classes. basically, what derek does is look back over the past 300 years of musical activity, and discusses how improvisation was a part of the activity - from (church) organ music to flamenco to jazz to non-idiomatic free improvisation and so much more. his prose is clear, erudite and simply put - not surprisingly if you think of his playing. highly recommended.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Lucas

    A valuable and instructive collection of commentary, interviews, and summaries from Derek Bailey, who traces all music back to the practice of improvising. The most helpful sections are in the first half of the book, where Bailey interviews musicians within different idiomatic musical traditions, among them Indian, Flamenco, and Church music. Thinking about how improvisation works within these approaches, and how free improvisation differs from all of them, was immediately inspiring. It's as gre A valuable and instructive collection of commentary, interviews, and summaries from Derek Bailey, who traces all music back to the practice of improvising. The most helpful sections are in the first half of the book, where Bailey interviews musicians within different idiomatic musical traditions, among them Indian, Flamenco, and Church music. Thinking about how improvisation works within these approaches, and how free improvisation differs from all of them, was immediately inspiring. It's as great a text for conjuring questions as it is for answering them, however, which makes the second half, focused on free improvisation, just as valuable. Anyone interested in the overlap of avant garde composition, modern composition, jazz, free jazz, free improvisation, and etc. would do well to read Part Four, which focuses on composers, aleatory methods, and an extended interviews with Earle Brown and Anthony Pay.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Michael Karman

    Everyone talks about this as a book on improvisation, which of course it is. It's just that it's so much more. It is one of the best books I've read on music, period. I have been playing and reading about and listening to music all my life (60), and I felt I learned more about music generally from this book than I had from any other. It could really have been titled The Nature and Practice of Music. I think of it that way, too, because the parts about improvisation specifically are a bit out of da Everyone talks about this as a book on improvisation, which of course it is. It's just that it's so much more. It is one of the best books I've read on music, period. I have been playing and reading about and listening to music all my life (60), and I felt I learned more about music generally from this book than I had from any other. It could really have been titled The Nature and Practice of Music. I think of it that way, too, because the parts about improvisation specifically are a bit out of date. Not much, mind you. But there's little if anything applicable to EAI that I could see. I would love for Derek to have lived to talk about and talk to people like Otomo Yoshihide, eRikm, Sachiko M, and Andrea Neumann, to name just a few current artists. But what we have is great, and its greatness goes far beyond the nature and practice of improvisation. I would call it indispensable.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Christa

    "The relationship between any music which is improvised and its audience is of a very special nature. Improvisation's responsiveness to its environment puts the performance in a position to be directly influenced by the audience." Quite an enlightening book. There isn't one bit of music that has remained unaffected by improvisation. So then, where does original thought in music occur? Is it possible to create something so completely original without being affected by improvisation of music, cult "The relationship between any music which is improvised and its audience is of a very special nature. Improvisation's responsiveness to its environment puts the performance in a position to be directly influenced by the audience." Quite an enlightening book. There isn't one bit of music that has remained unaffected by improvisation. So then, where does original thought in music occur? Is it possible to create something so completely original without being affected by improvisation of music, culture of the past? Is improvisation even original in nature? Overall, a great look at the nature and practice of it in music.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Hanna

    Interesting book that everyone who's interested in music improvisation should read. In this book Bailey (may he rest in piece) tried to theorize the musicmaking method and the scene that was so close to his heart. His thoughts about free improvisation and the definitions of idiomatic and non-idiomatic improvisation musics (a division which he later in his life softened a little) is fascinating. Interesting book that everyone who's interested in music improvisation should read. In this book Bailey (may he rest in piece) tried to theorize the musicmaking method and the scene that was so close to his heart. His thoughts about free improvisation and the definitions of idiomatic and non-idiomatic improvisation musics (a division which he later in his life softened a little) is fascinating.

  9. 4 out of 5

    John

    I was largely indifferent to this book. He seemed downright mad that classical music lost its improvisational mojo, but seemed to fixate on it. None of the interviews told me that much. Would love a recommendation of anything like this but more recent.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Thomas Feng

    maybe it's because I'm a musician and am picky about reading about music, but I don't like to be expert-splained (read: mansplained!) at at length... no doubt music/creativity/improvisation are ineffable but it's like a lot of breath in each section toward whatever "je ne sais quoi" which hip-smart-poetic people sometimes throw around in whatever dutiful deference to whatever mystical thing that just runs through them. I'm tired of this kinda off-the-cuff philosophizing! like people getting #hea maybe it's because I'm a musician and am picky about reading about music, but I don't like to be expert-splained (read: mansplained!) at at length... no doubt music/creativity/improvisation are ineffable but it's like a lot of breath in each section toward whatever "je ne sais quoi" which hip-smart-poetic people sometimes throw around in whatever dutiful deference to whatever mystical thing that just runs through them. I'm tired of this kinda off-the-cuff philosophizing! like people getting #heady while casually "talking shop" just puts me off (and I LIKE talking shop; it's that bro-ey easy-going self-importance that drives me up a wall). did I mention that it felt like a long mansplanation? (in however many interviews there was only ONE who was not male, and she got two paragraphs.) like I can handle a book by a male author (lol) but the polyphonic format of this book made it feel like a parade of male experts "setting the record straight" and just wow the last third of this book was a drag. I liked the premise of the book, which was not to give a theory or history of improvisation so much as to like, offer a portrait of different modes of improvisation that the author has encountered (so I accept his disclaimer that the book is not intended to be "comprehensive", though with the way the book proceeds with all these interviews and explorations into niche sub-genres it's hard not to feel like he's attempting some kind of comprehensive survey). like it's personal enough that he includes his own hot takes here and then, and yet still somehow read to me as an attempt at a field guide. I'm a square so the parts about organ, jazz (a very condensed history and hot take) and the Occidental angst around "The Composer" were interesting to me indeed. oddly it was the ending sections about the author's experience in the UK free improv world that was the biggest struggle to get through – because musically that is very interesting to me and I also usually like a personal on-the-ground perspective.

  11. 4 out of 5

    RA

    I have been a big fan of Derek Bailey's music since I first heard it in the late 70's (I believe). An essential book for musicians, especially those interested in improvisation. This is the revised version, by guitarist Derek Bailey, one of the pioneers of "free improvisation;" and there is an accompanying documentary series (5 parts) available on YouTube. There is a number of viewpoints from different musicians/composers, etc. about the nature, progress, shortcomings, strengths, and importance of I have been a big fan of Derek Bailey's music since I first heard it in the late 70's (I believe). An essential book for musicians, especially those interested in improvisation. This is the revised version, by guitarist Derek Bailey, one of the pioneers of "free improvisation;" and there is an accompanying documentary series (5 parts) available on YouTube. There is a number of viewpoints from different musicians/composers, etc. about the nature, progress, shortcomings, strengths, and importance of freely improvised music. There are discussions concerning pro-instrument (trained musicians) and anti-instrument (non-trained/new musicians) improvisation; how different musicians teach it; the impact this style has on improvisors and non-improvisors; differences between collective and individual improvisation; and the unique nature of improvised music in a temporal setting. Absolutely thought-provoking. As an early adherent of "free" music 9fo various types, and improvised/experimental music, this was really fun to read, but I had to slowly and carefully read this, in order to digest the ideas.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Joe Richards

    A very well considered and wide-reaching book on improvisation; perhaps the most prestigious and with good reason. As a huge Bailey fan my interest was piqued in the latter chapters in which the iconoclastic guitarist analyses his own music and projects. The earlier chapters on the differences, similarities and impact of improvisation across different cultures and points in history are as engaging as the reader's own interest in the topics in question. A very well considered and wide-reaching book on improvisation; perhaps the most prestigious and with good reason. As a huge Bailey fan my interest was piqued in the latter chapters in which the iconoclastic guitarist analyses his own music and projects. The earlier chapters on the differences, similarities and impact of improvisation across different cultures and points in history are as engaging as the reader's own interest in the topics in question.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Joshua Jankiewicz

    Definitely eye-opening. Derek Bailey is not only so insightful because of his personal experience being one of the greatest free-improvisation guitarists of all time, but he's able to get inside the head of all these musicians he interviews and frame their perspectives into a clear, unified whole. The only thing that's limiting it: he doesn't really give enough mic time to improvisations detractors! I would love for him to have cut them down a notch or two. Still, great! Definitely eye-opening. Derek Bailey is not only so insightful because of his personal experience being one of the greatest free-improvisation guitarists of all time, but he's able to get inside the head of all these musicians he interviews and frame their perspectives into a clear, unified whole. The only thing that's limiting it: he doesn't really give enough mic time to improvisations detractors! I would love for him to have cut them down a notch or two. Still, great!

  14. 5 out of 5

    Ian

    Good content with a boring presentation. Outside of the dryness of the book, I loved all of it. Improvising is a fundamental part of my life and music, so reading all of these different perspectives on the subject was enlightening. Highly recommended for improvisers.

  15. 5 out of 5

    James Carroll

    This book takes a wider look at improvisation than most, not tied to any one genre of music. I like the reminder that so-called classical music was once an improvised genre.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Xavier Guillaume

    I love books that inspire, that leave you wanting to change yourself and the world around you. There are several parts in this book that I just want to pick up a guitar or flute and start playing! That is the beauty of improvisation. Anyone can do it. Give any non-musician an instrument, and when they strum on the strings or beat on the drum they are performing improv. There really is a magical quality to improvisation. Improvisation is about feeling the rhythm, being in the moment, and creating I love books that inspire, that leave you wanting to change yourself and the world around you. There are several parts in this book that I just want to pick up a guitar or flute and start playing! That is the beauty of improvisation. Anyone can do it. Give any non-musician an instrument, and when they strum on the strings or beat on the drum they are performing improv. There really is a magical quality to improvisation. Improvisation is about feeling the rhythm, being in the moment, and creating music sparked by pure creativity. Do you want to play fast? Do you want to play slow? Long notes or short notes? Large or small jumps in the scale? Do you even want to play in a key? What about sticking to a certain musical genre or none at all? If you're playing in a group, do you want to play in response to another player or do you want to do something completely different? The choice is up to you and that's the beauty of it. It's like writing or dancing, you know enough words, you know enough moves, but it's up to you to decide how you want to combine them. Maybe you want to try a technique you've never done before. Hit a cymbal under water? Improvisation is all based on pure spontaneous imagination. A lot of people would probably like the chapters on jazz and Derek Bailey's interviews with various musicians. These sections are insightful, but my favorite part of the book is when Bailey explores the various musical genres that embrace improvisation: Indian, Flamenco, Baroque... Each genre is beautiful in its own way. For example, Indian music is an act of spiritualism, where by playing you are tapping into the flow of the Universe, something I can relate to. Improvisation is definitely a book I want to keep on my bookshelf for whenever I want to feel musically inspired. My only problem with Improvisation, however, is the fact that Derek Bailey is not a good writer. The content is good, but the sentence structure can use improving. There are areas where sentences don't make sense at first. You have to read these sentences again slower, and then you can understand what Bailey is trying to say. However, you have to give Bailey credit. Explaining improvisation is like explaining a feeling. How do you put into words the description of a feeling. It's not exactly easy. I definitely recommend reading this book. Derek Bailey has put a lot of work into it, and I love that it is not just Bailey's opinions on improvisation. He incorporates interviews with several musicians, so we have several perspectives on improvisation in all of its various forms. Some love it; some detest it. Others even have various ideas of what improvisation even is. This is a fantastic book whether you've played music for years or you've never touched an instrument. You probably will get more from this book if you have experience with improvisation, but it is still worth reading even if you haven't. Who knows? Maybe it will inspire you to pick up an instrument and try it out.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Dorsey Bass

    A great book exploring the musical practice of improvisation, structured in chapters that focus on several traditions from around the world (Indian classical, jazz, rock, flamenco). My main critique is that Bailey's distinction between "idiomatic" and "non-idiomatic" improvisation is essentially useless, except as a disavowal of his own placement in a specific historical "tradition" or musical community (what is often called European free improvisation). Gayatri Spivak's critique of Foucault & D A great book exploring the musical practice of improvisation, structured in chapters that focus on several traditions from around the world (Indian classical, jazz, rock, flamenco). My main critique is that Bailey's distinction between "idiomatic" and "non-idiomatic" improvisation is essentially useless, except as a disavowal of his own placement in a specific historical "tradition" or musical community (what is often called European free improvisation). Gayatri Spivak's critique of Foucault & Deleuze's "critique of the subject" which then reinscribes the Western subject as central to all discourse (http://tinyurl.com/n9ost5) seems pretty apt here. Well, it's apt if you happen to be as much of a leftist theory nerd as I am :). Also, you should definitely check out "On the Edge," the BBC documentary based on this book. You can find episodes 1, 2 and 3 (of 4) here: http://tinyurl.com/m6nyjc5

  18. 4 out of 5

    Brendan

    This reads like a transcript from a documentary. It's a brilliant idea in the wrong medium. Derek Bailey interviewing master musicians, talking about his own work, and hypothesizing about improvisation is a very good thing, but in book format it seems clumsy and lacking. I know there is some sort of BBC film loosely affiliated with this project. I'd be curious to see how it holds up. Despite my irritability with it's presentation, I found Bailey's book inspiring and informative. It's like eaves-d This reads like a transcript from a documentary. It's a brilliant idea in the wrong medium. Derek Bailey interviewing master musicians, talking about his own work, and hypothesizing about improvisation is a very good thing, but in book format it seems clumsy and lacking. I know there is some sort of BBC film loosely affiliated with this project. I'd be curious to see how it holds up. Despite my irritability with it's presentation, I found Bailey's book inspiring and informative. It's like eaves-dropping on master musicians as they ponder their life's work and experience. Truly an invaluable project, only to possibly become enhanced in some other future media format.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Mysterioso

    I absolutely loved this book. Based around a series of interviews with practitioners across all the major musical idioms and with a good helping of personal anecdotes, Derek Bailey explores improvisation in a humble, wise and warm book. This book is a very satisfying read, and one that I find myself coming back to every few years.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Peter

    I enjoyed it. I really liked the first half dealing with Indian, Flamenco, Organ, Baroque and Jazz Improvisation. The second half delved into free improvisation, which is obviously Derek Bailey's passion, which was interesting but given too much attention in my opinion. Overall a fascinating study on the often misunderstood art of improvisation. I enjoyed it. I really liked the first half dealing with Indian, Flamenco, Organ, Baroque and Jazz Improvisation. The second half delved into free improvisation, which is obviously Derek Bailey's passion, which was interesting but given too much attention in my opinion. Overall a fascinating study on the often misunderstood art of improvisation.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Scott

    I read this before I did any contemporary improv stuff or studied Indian music at all, so I would be excited to read it again, but at the time I thought it was a little dry. For now 3 stars.

  22. 5 out of 5

    Ryan

    what an incredible detail of improvisation in all forms of music. From Baroque to Free Jazz Mr. Bailey knows what he is talking about.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Bill

    Few understand improvisation; no one understands it better than Derek Bailey...

  24. 4 out of 5

    Steev Hise

    pretty much the best book on improvisation i've ever read. unfortunately i seem to have misplaced my copy. i feel like i loaned it to someone but i can't remember who. was it you? pretty much the best book on improvisation i've ever read. unfortunately i seem to have misplaced my copy. i feel like i loaned it to someone but i can't remember who. was it you?

  25. 4 out of 5

    Grig O'

    An eye-opening book, insightful and deliberate. It's also one of those books where the author is so invested in his subject it becomes infectious. An eye-opening book, insightful and deliberate. It's also one of those books where the author is so invested in his subject it becomes infectious.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Karlyn

    I am deeply grateful to this book.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Steve Malley

    Absolutely brilliant. Essential.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Chadwick

    One of the absolute best books on music ever written.

  29. 4 out of 5

    Cat

    I can't recommend this book highly enough. A must read for all musicians from all genres. I can't recommend this book highly enough. A must read for all musicians from all genres.

  30. 4 out of 5

    Andrew

    A wonderful book that tells as much about Bailey as it does a history of improvisation. It complements Jay Heble's wonderful ~Landing on the Wrong Note~. A wonderful book that tells as much about Bailey as it does a history of improvisation. It complements Jay Heble's wonderful ~Landing on the Wrong Note~.

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